Black crappies are found in pockets throughout the Finger Lakes. The best known Finger Lake for them is Honeoye. Small populations are found in Cayuga, Otisco, Keuka, Canandaigua and Hemlock Lake. Some also show up in Seneca and Owasco Lakes too, primarily at the south end. Every Fingerlake possibly has a small population of these fish. Many of these populations are clearly illegal introductions. The Seneca River system including Cross Lake has a lot of crappies, though many are undersized. Sodus Bay and other bays and protected areas around Lake Ontario provide some good crappie fishing as well. Most serious crappie fishermen I know fish smaller lesser known waterbodies for these fish.
Cayuga Lake was the top crappie lake in the region back in the 1980s. I remember it being easy to catch them back then. We found them right along the Cayuga/Seneca Canal going out of Cayuga Lake in the little cuts/bays. These days they aren't nearly as common as they used to be. A lot of that probably is due to the lake clearing up considerably from that time. In 2015 I saw a youngster catch a couple nice crappies right around one of the Cayuga boat launches. I didn't encounter any while perch or bass fishing this year.
The crappie in the species shot is a solid one I caught in 2014 on Cayuga Lake. It hit a tube jig. Best bets in the area for crappies are Waneta/Lamoka Lakes, Cayuta (Little) Lake and the Seneca River.
White Crappies are now found in Otisco Lake. They were illegally introduced there, probably from Whitney Point Reservoir. The like turbid water and are thus found south of the causeway.